# Virtual Centre for Industrial & Process Tomography

Industrial & Process Tomography

## 2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography

The Second World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography was held at the Courtyard by Marriot Hotel, Hannover, Germany, August 29th to 31st 2001.

Over the four day programme, 124 delegtes registered, 95 papers and 5 invited overviews were presented.

Sessions were arranged into 3 themes:

- Applications,
- Hardware and
- Software.

### Tomography Prize

The prize for best paper was awarded to A J Jaworski and T Dyakowski for their paper, "Tomographic Measurements of Solids Mass Flow in Pneumatic Conveying. What Do We Need to Know About the Flow Physics?"

## Programme

### Overview I

**Process Imaging: What Industry Wants**

D Scott

### Software I: Electrical Capacitance Tomography

**Reconstruction Algorithms for Permittivity and Conductivity Imaging**

W R B Lionheart

**Use of Raw Capacitance Tomography Data for Flow Pattern Control**

L F C Jeanmeure, T Dyakowski, W B J Zimmerman, G Baker

**New Reconstruction Algorithm for Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

T Loser, R Wajman, D Mewes

**Comparison of Three Image Reconstruction Algorithms for Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

S Liu, L Fu, W Q Yang

**Using Principal Componant Analysis to Measure Two-Phase Flow Concentration**

L Zhou, Y C Zhang, D Y Yao, L H Peng, B F Zhang

**Filtering in Image Reconstruction for Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

S M Ge, W Q Yang

**Visualization of Time-Space Dominant Particle from CT Images Using 3D Wavelets Transform - Comparison Between Non-Choking and Pseudo Choking**

M Takei, H Li, M Ochi, Y Saito, K Horii, T Dyakowski

**Regularization Based Image Reconstruction of Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

L H Peng, D Y Yao, B F Zhang

### Hardware I: Microwave, T-Ray and X-Ray Systems

**2.45GHz Mircowave Camera for ISM Applicatons**

A Joisel, J Ch Bolomey

**X-ray Fluorescence Auto Projection Tomography (X-FAPT)**

K I Dietzel, G A Johansen, H McCann

**High-Resolution Microtomograph (Micro-CT)**

A Sasov

**Dual Energy X-Ray Tomography in Process Engineering - A Non-Intrusive Technique to Characterise Vertical Multiphase Flows**

T Grassler, K E Wirth

**A New Cone Beam X-ray Microtomography Facility for 3D Analysis of Multiphase Materials**

C L Lin, J D Miller

**X-Ray Microtomography : a New Tool to Follow Soft Material Shrinkage During Convective Drying**

A Léonard, S Blacher, P Marchot, M Crine

**Radar Imaging of the Natural Environment**

S J Lane, R O Mackin, A Binley, H Pinkerton, R Middleton, A Peyton

**The Clinical Need for a Dental CAT-Scan**

G C Bushway

### Overview II

**Tomography and Velocimetry for Multiphase Reactors: A USA Perspective**

M H Al-Dahhan, M P Dudukovic

### Applications I: Mixing and Flow Measurement

**Imaging of Steel Profiles within a Pouring Nozzle**

R Binns, A R A Lyons, A J Peyton

**Measurement of the Angular Velocity Distribution in Miscible Liquid Mixing Using Electrical Resistance Tomography**

M Wang, W Yin

**Dual-Validation of Miscible Liquid Mixing in a Stirred Vessel Imaged by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT)**

S J Stanley, E Wabo, R Mann, K Primrose

**Application of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to Monitor a Flow - Follower in a Stirred Vessel**

K. Salem, K. Kling, R Mann

**Multiphase Flow Regime Identification by Multibeam Gamma-Ray Densitometry**

S A Tjugum, G A Johansen

**The Application of Electrical Resistance Tomography to a Large Volume Production Pressure Filter**

B D Grieve, Q Smit, R Mann, T A York

**Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) Imaging of a Metal-Walled Solid-Liquid Filter**

E L Yuen, R Mann, T A York, B D Grieve

**Utilizing Internal Electrodes in Volume Fraction Estimation by Electrical Process Tomography**

L M Heikkinen, M Vauhkonen, T Savolainen, J P Kaipio

**State Estimation in Three Dimensional Impedance Imaging - Use of Fluid Dynamical Evolution Models**

A Seppänen, M Vauhkonen, P J Vauhkonen, E Somersalo, J P Kaipio

### Hardware II: Optical and Electromagnetic Systems

**Optical Interferometric and Dual Wavelength Photometric Tomographic Methods**

D Mewes, K Kling

**Assessment of The Basic Metrological Properties of an Optical Tomograph at the Gas-Bubble Measurement**

M R Rzasa, B Dobrowolski

**Chemical Species Tomography of Sprays of Volatile Hydrocarbons by Near Infra-Red Absorption**

H McCann, S J Carey, F P Hindle, K B Ozanyan, D E Winterbone, E Clough

**Magnetic Induction Tomography - New Imaging Method in Biomedicine**

A V Korjenevsky, V A Cherepenin, S A Sapetsky

**Multi-Excitation-Mode Electromagnetic Tomography (EMT) System**

M He, Z Liu, L J Xu, L-A Xu

**A Modified Electromagnetic Flowmeter for In-line Monitoring of Rheological Parameters**

A Hans

**Fast Industrial Computed Tomography and its Applications**

S Gondrom, M Maisl, S Schröpfer, T Wenzel, M Purschke

**Custom Silicon for Finite Element Modelling**

M Komarudin, T A York, W R B Lionheart

**The Flow of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Solid Matrices Described Particularly by Magnetic Resonance Tomography**

C Heinen, G Guthausen, H Buggisch

### Overview III

**Recent Commercial Developments in Ultrasound Imaging**

G Hetzel

### Applications II: Porous Materials, Pastes and Powders

**Multiple Radioactive Particle Tracking in Fluidized Beds Using Gamma Cameras**

A Kantzas, C L Hyndman, K Hamilton, L Schober, I Wright

**Electrical Impedance Imaging of Paste During Extrusion**

R M West, Y Wu, D M Scott, G Sunshine, B S Hoyle, J Kostuch, C N McLeod, R A Williams

**Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography to Monitor Gas Voids in a Packed Bed of Solids**

R B White

**A Study of the Mixing Characteristics of a Liquid Magnetically Stabilised Fluidised Bed Using Electrical Resistance Tomography**

Y Y Hou, M Wang, R Holt, R A Williams

**Application of Process Tomography as a Tool for Better Understanding of Fluidization Quality in a Conventional Fluidized Bed**

Y T Makkawi, P C Wright

**Progress of the ECT Application in Dust-Air Explosibility Research**

A Plaskowski, T Piotrowski, M Fraczak, B Zygmunt, B Hancyk

**Structure of Transaxial Flow in a Powder Mixer**

B F C Laurent, J Bridgwater and D J Parker

**Tomographic Measurements of Solids Mass Flow in Pneumatic Conveying. What Do We Need to Know About the Flow Physics?**

A J Jaworski, T Dyakowski

**Positron Imaging Studies of Rotating Drums**

D J Parker, R N G Forster, P Fowles, Y Ding, J P K Seville

**The Flow of Solution and Crystals in a Draft Tube Crystalliser Investigated Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking**

G S M van Beuzekom, M D de Jong, Z I Kolar, H J M Kramer, B Scarlett

### Software II: Electrical Impedance Tomography

**Using Process Tomography as a Sensor in a System for Controlling Concentration in Fluid Flow**

S Duncan

**Considerations in Electrical Impedance Imaging**

N Polydorides, W R B Lionheart, H McCann

**Sensitivity Theorem Based Inverse Solution Using Conjugate Gradients Methods for Electrical Impedance Tomography**

M Wang

**Finite Element Optimizations for Efficient Non-Linear Electrical Tomography Reconstruction**

M Molinari, H Fangohr, J Generowicz, S J Cox

**Imaging Rangeability of Particular ERT Reconstruction Algorithms**

Y Ma, M Wang, Z Zheng, Y Wu, N Holliday

**Efficient Non-Linear 3D Electrical Tomography Reconstruction**

M Molinari, S J Cox, B H Blott, G J Daniell

**Total Variation Regularisation in EIT Reconstruction**

A Borsic, C N McLeod, W R B Lionheart

### Overview IV

**Software for Improved Imaging**

J P Kaipio

### Software III: Higher Energy Modalities

**Automatic Evaluation of 3D-CT Data Without CAD Information**

S Oeckl, U Hassler, T Wenzel, R Hanke

**X-Ray Microtomography Facilitated Modelling of Microstructures**

X Jia, N Gopinathan, R A Williams, C N Eberhardt, A R Clarke

**Three Dimensional Reconstruction of 99mTc Distribution by Using Coded Aperture ECT**

T Ito, H Otake, T Inoue, K Endo

**Synchrotron Radiation-Based Microtomography: Capabilities and Applications**

E Boller, P Cloetens, W Ludwig, S Nuzzo, J Baruchel

**Microwave Tomographic Imaging of Dielectric Objects Using Newton-Kantorovich Algorithms**

Z Wu, H McCann, L E Davis, A Boughriet, A T Nugroho

### Hardware III: Electrical Resistance / Impedance Systems

**A High Adaptive Electrical Impedance Sensing System For Flow Measurement**

M Wang, W Yin

**Current Pulse Technique for Electrical Resistance Tomography Measurements**

E W Randall, A J Wilkinson, J J Cilliers, W Xie, S J Neethling

**A High Speed, Multi-Frequency Impedance Analysing Node**

S J Dickinson, A J Peyton

**Problems of the Data Acquisition Rate for Impedance Tomography**

Z Szczepanik, Z Rucki

**Phase Measurement in Biomedical Magnetic Induction Tomography**

S Watson, R J Williams, W Gough , A Morris, H Griffiths

**Gas-Water Flow Interface Characterisation Using Electrical Resistance Tomography**

M Wang, Z Zhen, Y Ma, D Li, L Lao, R A Williams, Y Wu, B Hoyle

**Identification of Two-Phase Flow Regime Using Electrical Resistance Tomography**

F Dong, X P Liu, X Deng, L J Xu, L-A Xu

### Overview V

**Selecting the Technology for the Application**

E A Hammer

### Hardware IV: Electrical Capacitance Systems

**Developments in Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

M Byars

**Towards the Development of a Multiple-Frequency ECT System**

D Georgakopoulos, R C Waterfall, W Q Yang

**Advance in AC-based Capacitance Tomography System**

W Q Yang

**Cost Effective Loading of Road Tankers Using Process Tomography**

R Deloughry, M Young , E Pickup, L Barratt

**Impedance Analyser Based Tomography System**

A Chondronasios, W Q Yang, V T Nguyen

**A Novel Capacitance Measurement Circuit for Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

B L Wang, Z Y Huang, H Q Li

**Key Issues in the Design of a Capacitance Transducer for Tomography**

D Georgakopoulos and W Q Yang

**Analysis of Non-Ideal Characteristics of an AC-Based Capacitance Transducer for Tomography**

J C Gamio, W Q Yang, A L Stott

**Applicability of Electrical Capacitance Tomography to the Study of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays and Combustion**

W C Sanders, S L Ceccio, V Sick

### Applications III: Gas-Liquid Flows

**The Combined Use of Flow Visualisation, Electrical Resistance Tomography and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling to Study Mixing in a Pipe**

R B White, K Simic, P R Strode

**Application of Electrical Capacitance Measurements to Study the Collapse of Oil Foams**

D Pacho, G Davies

**Modelling Flow of Water and Air in Reconstructed Structures of Porous Media**

P Lehmann, M Krafczyk, A Gygi, A Flisch, P Wyss, H Flühler

**Determination of Flow Patterns and Void Fraction of Multiphase Flows Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

A E Corlett

**Water Concentrations and Interface Positions by Single Electrode Capacitance Probes (SeCaP™)**

R B Schüller, T Solbakken, B Engebretsen, M Halleraker

**Demonstration of a Novel Retrofit Tomography Baffle Cage for Gas-liquid Mixing Studies Under Intense Operating Conditions**

M Cooke, G Bolton, D H Jones, D Housley

**Singularity Image Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography of Bubbly Flows**

C Huang, J Lee, W W Schultz, S L Ceccio

**Measurement of the Gas Phase Velocity in Gas-Liquid Flows Using a Dual-Plane ERT System**

X Deng, F Dong, L J Xu, X P Liu, L A Xu

**Analysis of Electrical Resistance Tomography Measurements Obtained in a Bubble Column: Dynamic Aspects, First Results**

E Fransolet, M Crine, G L’Homme, D Toye, P Marchot

### Applications IV: Control Inspection and Safety

**NMR for Process Control: Imaging and Localized NMR in Soft Matter**

B Blümich

**A Case Study Demonstrating Automatic Interpretation and Optimization of Regularization for Electrical Resistance Tomography**

R M West, H S Tapp, D M Spink, M A Bennett, R A Williams

**Digital MicroLaminography for High-Resolution Inspection of Electronic Assemblies**

A Sasov

**Influence of Unsharpness on Crack Length Evaluation with Computerized Tomography Methods**

A V Likhachov, V V Pickalov, U Ewert, B Redmer

**Process Tomography for Contamination Detection in Liquid Foods: A Feasibility Study**

G T Bolton, U Sharif

**Flow Regime Identification and Optimum Interfacial Area Control of Bubble Columns Using Electrical Impedance Imaging**

M Wang, X Jia, M Bennett, R A Williams

### Software IV: Other Modalities

**Image Segmentation Algorithms for Industrial Process Tomography**

D Sankowski, A Plaskowski, V Mosorov, K Strzecha, S Jezewski

**Scattered Radiation Problem in Three-Dimensional Transmission Tomography**

A V Likhachov, V V Pickalov

**Direct Flow Process Estimations From Tomographic Data Using Artificial Neural Systems**

J Mohamad-Saleh, B S Hoyle, F J W Podd, D M Spink

**Optimisation of a Gamma-Tomograph for Imaging Dense Phase Flow**

M Campbell, J Sun, J M Crowther, A S Eadie, E A Knight, P Marjanovic, P A Wallace

### Appendix I: Late Papers

**Statistical Estimation Theory Approach for the Dynamic Image Reconstruction**

G-R Tillack, V M Artemiev, A O Naumov

**A Regularized Multivariate Linear Regression Image Reconstruction Algorithm for ERT**

Y Wei, J Zhao, S Wang

**Analytical Solution to the Three Dimensional Electrical Forward Problem for an Elliptical Cylinder**

F Kleinermann, N J Avis and F A Alhargan

**Mathematical and Experimental Investigation of the Quasi-Static Conditions for Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography**

F Kleinermann, N J Avis, F A Alhargan