# Virtual Centre for Industrial & Process Tomography

Industrial & Process Tomography

## 3rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography

The Third World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography was held at The Banff Centre, Banff, Canada, September 2nd to 5th 2003.

### Prizes and Awards

**The Maurice Beck Prize for "best paper"** went to "Element specific x-ray tomography at the 15 MeV linac", B. Masschaele, M. Dierick and L.Vanhoorebeke, Ghent University, Belgium.

**Tomoflow Prize for "key advances in instrumentation"** went to "High-speed capacitance scanner", J. Frounchi and F. Dehkhoda, Tabriz University, Iran

### Congress Pictures

## Programme

### Overview I

**Process Tomography and Particle Tracking: Research and Commercial Diagnostic Tool**

E H Stitt, K James

### HARDWARE I: Electrical Impedance Tomography

**Keynote: Best Value Design of Electrical Tomography Systems**

D Georgakopoulos, W Q Yang, R C Waterfall

**Prototype Hardware for Finite Element Modelling**

M Komarudin, W R B Lionheart, T A York

**A High Performance Online Data Processing EIT System**

Y Ma, N Holliday, Y Dai, M Wang, R A Williams, G Lucas

**Towards Miniaturised Electrical Tomography Systems**

T N Phua, L Sun, C Gregory, J Hatfield, T A York

**Depth Profile Scanning of Cylindrical Bar and Wire Using a Spectroscopic Direct Current Injection Technique**

S J Dickinson, R Binns, A J Peyton, W Yin

**A Specific Signal Conditioner for Electrical Impedance Tomography**

Y Dai, Y Ma, M Wang

**A Modular, Adaptive Electrical Impedance Tomography System**

T Savolainen, L M Heikkinen, M Vauhkonen, J P Kaipio

**An Electrical-Impedance Tomography System for Collecting Validation-Quality Data from Gas-Solid Flows**

P R Tortora, S L Ceccio, W W Schultz, T J O’Hern, J R Torczynski, S M Trujillo

**A Powerful Computational DSP Module for Multiphase Flow Measurement**

N Holliday, Y Ma, M Wang

### SOFTWARE I: Hard-field Techniques

**Keynote Perspective in Data Fusion Between X-ray Computed Tomography and Electrical Capacitance Tomography in an Absorption Column**

D Toye, G L’Homme, M Crine, P Marchot

**Advances in Automatic Evaluation of 3D-CT Data**

S Oeckl, U Hassler, T Wenzel, M Maisl, R Hanke

**Image Reconstruction Algorithms for High-Speed Chemical Species Tomography**

C A Garcia-Stewart, N Polydorides, K B Ozanyan, H McCann

**Automatic Weight Matrix Generation for Gamma-ray Tomography**

R Maad, G A Johansen

**Quality Improvements for Cone-Beam CT Using Beam Hardening and Scattering Correction**

S Kasperl, M Franz, R Hanke, U Hassler, S Schröpfer

**High-Energy Gamma-ray Tomography in the Nuclear Industry**

B A Cattle, L Elliott, A S Fellerman, D B Ingham, D Lesnic, R M West

**Characterisation of the Correction Map for an OFAPT Sensor with Fibre Receivers**

K B Ozanyan, H McCann

**A Source Model for Optical Diffusion Tomography**

T Vilhunen, V Kolehmainen, M Vauhkonen, J P Kaipio

**Industrial Inspection and Measurement Processes Using Micro Computer Tomography**

N Blessing

### Applications I: Model Validation with Tomographic Data

**Keynote: Phase Distribution in a High Pressure Slurry Bubble Column Via Computed Tomography**

A Shaikh, N Rados, M Al-Dahhan

**An Experimental and Simulation Study of the Hydrodynamics of a Linear Low Density Polyethylene**

L Schober, I Hulme, B Chandrasekaran, A Kantzas

**Potential of Combined Macro- and Micro-Scale Tomography to Monitor Multiphase Viscous Fluid Mixing**

L Ruffino, T A York, R Mann, G Tiddy, O Tadthong, P Bonnet, B D Grieve

**Visualisation of Air Bubbles by Magnetic Resonance Imaging**

F Heese, P Robson, L Hall

**Tomographic Analysis of Flocs and Flocculating Suspensions**

C Selomulya, X Jia, R A Williams

**Quantitation of Heating of Foods Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging**

K Nott, L Hall

**Monitoring of Air Bubbles in Pulp Flow based on Electrical Impedance Tomography**

S Zhou, J Halttunen

**Flow Distribution in Countercurrent Flow Structured Packing Bed via Computed Tomography**

S Roy, M H Al-Dahhan, M P Dudukovic, T B Skourlis, F M Dautzenberg

### OVERVIEW II

**Monte Carlo Simulation for Radiation Tomography**

R P Gardner

### HARDWARE II: Hard-Field

**Keynote: Semiconductor Quantum Devices for Optical Tomography**

K B Ozanyan

**Scattered Gamma Radiation Utilised for Level Measurements in Gravitational Separators**

M B Holstad, G A Johansen, P Jackson, K S Eidsnes

**Density Profiling in Multiphase Systems Using Gamma Ray Absorption**

M Darwood, K James, P Jackson, P Hewitt

**Multiphase Flow Regime Identification by Multibeam Gamma-ray Densitometry — Experimental Results**

S A Tjugum, G A Johansen, O A Iversen

**Element Specific X-ray Tomography at the 15 MeV Electron Linac**

B Masschaele, M Dierick, L Vanhoorebeke

**Near Infra-red Tomography for Concentration Measurements of Exhausting Water Vapour of a Packed Bed Adsorber**

K Salem, D Mewes, E Tsotsas

**Development and Implementation of Gamma-ray Tomography for Field Applications**

M W Darwood, M Davies, D Godden, P Jackson, K James, E H Stitt

**Quasi-3D Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Scattering of Dielectric Objects for Microwave Tomography**

J Hu, Z Wu, H McCann, L E Davis

**Optimisation of the Signal to Noise Performance of Photodiode Receivers in Near-infrared Absorption**

P Wright, K B Ozanyan, S J Carey, H McCann

### SOFTWARE II: Electrical and Magnetic Imaging

**Keynote: Spatial-temporal Modelling for Electrical Impedance Imaging of a Mixing Process**

R M West, S Meng, R G Aykroyd, R A Williams

**Non Iterative Inversion Method for Electrical Resistance, Capacitance and Inductance Tomography for Two Phase Materials**

A Tamburrino, G Rubinacci, M Soleimani, W R B Lionheart

**Sensitivity Analysis of 3D Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT)**

W R B Lionheart, M Soleimani, A J Peyton

**Optimal Control in Process Tomography**

A R Ruuskanen, A Seppänen, S Duncan, E Somersalo, J P Kaipio

**Image Reconstruction in 3D Magnetic Induction Tomography using a FEM Forward Model**

M Soleimani, W R B Lionheart, A J Peyton, X Ma

**MERIT - A New Magneto-electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique: Part 1, Modeling and Tomographic Reconstruction**

A Kemna, A Tillmann, A Verweerd, E Zimmermann, H Vereecken

**MERIT - A New Magneto-electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique: Part 2, Magnetic Sensors and Instrumentation**

E Zimmermann, A Verweerd, W Glaas, A Tillmann, A Kemna

**A Quantitative Algorithm for Parameter Estimation in Magnetic Induction Tomography**

R Casanova Luis, A F da Silva, A R Borges

**Forward Problem in 3D Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT)**

M Soleimani, W R B Lionheart, C H Riedel, O Dössel

### APPLICATIONS II: Flow Measurements

**Keynote: A Novel Tomographic Flow Analysis System**

A Hunt, J D Pendleton, R B White

**Volumetric Flow Rates from Impedance Tomography in Oil/Gas Flows**

G Fehmers

**Development of a Signal Prediction Based ECT-System for Precise Flow Velocity Measurement**

A Fuchs, B Brandstätter

**Application of Electrical Resistance Tomography to Two-Phase Flow and Void Fraction Measurement**

F Dong, X T Qiao, Z X Jiang, L A Xu

**The Use of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to Monitor Flow Patterns in Horizontal Slurry Transport Pipelines**

A D Pachowko, M Wang, C Poole, D Rhodes

**Non-invasive Imaging of Pressure-driven Suspension Flows with Electrical Resistance Tomography**

J T Norman, H V Nayak, R T Bonnecaze

**Acoustical Tomographic Imaging of Flow Fields**

P Holstein, R Müller, A Raabe, M Barth, D Mackenzie, K Arnold, A Ziemann, M Schatz

**Application of Optical Tomography for Measurement of Small Gas Flows**

M R Rząsa, A Pląskowski

**3D Presentation of Images with Capacitance Tomography**

H G Wang, S Liu, F Jiang, W Q Yang

### OVERVIEW III

**Computed Tomography Applications for the Oil and Gas Industry**

L Tomutsa

### HARDWARE III: Electromagnetic Inductance

**Keynote: A State of the Art Review of Electromagnetic Tomography**

H S Tapp, A J Peyton

**Numerical Simulation of Eddy Current Losses in High Frequency Magnetic Field Water Fraction Meters**

E A Hammer, F Pettersen, A Nødseth

**Characterising the Effects of the External Electromagnetic Shield on a Magnetic Induction Tomography Sensor**

A J Peyton, S Watson, R J Williams, H Griffiths, W Gough

**A 3D Imaging System for Measuring the Shape and Volume of the Human Body**

W A Wan-Daud, H S Tapp, C Ktistis, A J Peyton

**Understanding the Coupling Mechanisms in High Frequency EMT**

D Goss, R O Mackin, E Crescenzo, H S Tapp, A J Peyton

**Optimizing the Spatial Sensitivity Response of a New Current Sensor Constructed with a Printed Coil Array**

A Salisbury, A J Peyton, A Dytch

**Development of Electromagnetic Inductance Tomography (EMT) Hardware for Determining Human Body Composition**

D Goss, R O Mackin, E Crescenzo, H S Tapp, A J Peyton

**A Combined Digital Camera - EMT System to Measure Human Body Composition**

H S Tapp, D Goss, R O Mackin, E Crescenzo, W A Wan-Daud, C Ktistis, A J Peyton

### SOFTWARE III: Electrical Capacitance I

**Keynote: Development of 3-Dimensional Electrical Capacitance Tomography Based on Neural Network Multi-criterion Optimization Image Reconstruction**

W Warsito, L-S Fan

**A Comparison of the Mutual Energy Concept with an Adjoint State Approach for Jacobian Calculation in ECT**

B Brandstätter, B Kortschak

**A Novel Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Electrical Capacitance Tomography Based on Variational Methods and Green’s Functions**

A Fraguela, J Oliveros, S Gomez

**On-line Iterative Image Reconstruction for ECT**

S Liu, L Fu, W Q Yang, H G Wang, F Jiang

**Image Reconstruction in Process Tomography Using Hierarchical Self-organising Maps**

D Benchebra, P V S Ponnapalli, R Deloughry

**A Fast Gauss-Newton Based ECT Algorithm with Automatic Adjustment of the Regularization Parameter**

G Holler, D Watzenig, B Brandstätter

**A Hybrid Iterative Algorithm for Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

T Dyakowski, M Rutkowski, D Sakson

**An Interpretation of the Linear Back-Projection Algorithm Used in Capacitance Tomography**

J C Gamio, C Ortiz-Aleman

### APPLICATIONS III: Tomography for Design of Heat and Mass Transfer Equipment

**Keynote: Measurement of Acid-Base Neutralisation Reactions by Magnetic Resonance Imaging**

S Evans, L Hall

**Gamma Tomography System For Determination of Solids Loading in Gas-Solid Flows: Comparison with Axial Pressure Gradient Method**

T J O’Hern, S M Trujillo, P R Tortora

**Measurement of Liquid and Gas Flow Distribution in a Fixed Bed Reactor Using a Gamma-ray Tomographic System**

A Koudil, C Boyer, Y Bentolila

**Study of Stirred Tank Reactor Hydrodynamics Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking**

R P Fishwick, E H Stitt, J M Winterbottom

**Measurement of Particle Separation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging**

F Heese, L Hall

**Using X-ray Microtomography to Improve the Characterisation of Catalyst Pore Structure**

L Ruffino, R Mann, R Oldman, E H Stitt, E Boller, P Cloetens, M DiMichiel, J Merino

**Quantitation of Fluid Flow Through Medical Devices Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging**

F Heese, L Hall

**The Use of Inductance Spectroscopy to Image the Conductivity Distribution of a Layered Conductor**

W Yin, S J Dickinson, A J Peyton

**Study of Solids Distribution and Permeability of Extruded Samples Using X-ray Micro-Tomography**

N Gopinathan, X Jia, R A Williams, E H Stitt

### OVERVIEW IV

**Applications of Electric Potential (Displacement Current) Sensors in Human Body Electrophysiology**

C J Harland, T D Clark, R J Prance

### HARDWARE IV: Electrical Modalities

**Keynote: Towards Wireless Impedance Tomography Systems**

T A York, D Belabdi, A Burnett-Thompson, D Emiroglu, O Egbetola, L McCulloch, S Savvides, W Q Yang

**High-Speed Capacitance Scanner**

J Frounchi, F Dehkhoda

**Electromagnetic Geotomography — Frequency Selection**

A Prałat, R Zdunek

**The Design of a 1000 Frames/Second ERT Data Capture System and Calibration Techniques Employed**

A J Wilkinson, E W Randall, D Durrett, T Naidoo, J J Cilliers

**Tomometric Approach Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion in Particle Segregation Studies**

U Datta, V Mathiesen, S Mylvaganam

**A Study on the Characterization of Air-water Two-phase Vertical Flow by Using Electrical Resistance Imaging**

Y Wu, H Li, M Wang, R A Williams

**2½D Temperature Mapping: The Tomographic “Blanket”**

S Garcia C, K B Ozanyan

### SOFTWARE IV: General Imaging

**Image Reconstruction for Process Tomography Using Sampled Pattern Matching Method**

M Takei, H Li , M Ochi, Y Saito, K Horii

**Virtual Channel Concept for Measuring Solids Mass Flow Rate**

T Dyakowski, V Mosorov, D Sankowski, M Seaton, Ł Mazurkiewicz, K Grudziń, A Jaworski

**An Experimental Evaluation of the State Estimation with Fluid Dynamical Models in Process Tomography**

A Sepp 0nen, L Heikkinen, T Savolainen, E Somersalo, J P Kaipio

**Research on the Pixel-pixel Cross Correlation for the Velocity Distribution Measurement of Two-phase Flow**

X Deng, L H Peng, D Y Yao, B F Zhang

**Multigrid Implementation of Some Regularized Image Reconstruction Methods for Limited-Data Tomography**

R Zdunek, A Prałat

**Image Reconstruction for Pressure Filtration Using EIDORS 3D**

T A York, Ł Mazurkiewicz, N Polydorides, R Mann, B Grieve

**Generic Reality Visualisation Models Through Fusion of Process Tomography Sensor Data**

B S Hoyle, X Jia, X Z Wang, R A Williams

**Octopus, a Fast and User-friendly Tomography Reconstruction Package Developed in LabView**

M Dierick, B Masschaele, L Van Hoorebeke

### APPLICATIONS IV: Tomography for Particulate Processes

**Keynote: Positron Emission Tomography Applied to Fluidization Engineering**

C Dechsiri, F Van de Wiel, H G Dehling, A M J Paans, A C Hoffmann

**Observation of 3-D Structure of Bubbles in a Fluidized Catalyst Bed**

T Kai, M Misawa, T Kanda, T Takahashi, I Tiseanu, N Ichikawa

**Fast Computed Tomographic Imaging within Turbulent Fluidised Beds**

P R P Bruneau, R F Mudde, T H J J van der Hagen

**Tracking Individual Particles in a Fluidized Bed Using a Medical PET-Camera**

A C Hoffmann, C Dechsiri, F van de Wiel, A Ghione, H G Dehling, A M J Paans

**Computational Modelling of Packed Bed Systems**

N Gopinathan, M Fairweather, X Jia, R A Williams

**Use of ERT in a Geotechnical Centrifuge**

F K Günzel, C J Fyfe, M C R Davies

**In Situ Electrical Impedance Imaging of Paste During Extrusion Revealing Structure of Extrudate**

R M West, D M Scott, G Sunshine, J Kostuch, L Heikkinen, R Hou, R A Williams

### OVERVIEW V

**Electrical Impedance Imaging**

D Issaacson, J Newell, G Saulnier

### HARDWARE V: Electrical Capacitance Tomography

**Keynote: Transient Analysis of the AC-based Capacitance Measuring Circuit for Tomography**

A Gonzalez-Nakazawa, J C Gamio, W Q Yang

**A New High-Speed Control Interface for an Electrical Capacitance Tomography System**

M Byars, J D Pendleton, D Goodeve

**A Parallel Measurement Strategy for Electrical Capacitance Tomography**

G Lu, L H Peng, B F Zhang

**High-Speed Capacitance Measuring System For Process Tomography**

J Frounchi, A-R Bazzazi, K Ebnabbasi, K Hosseini

**Capacitance Tomography for Dynamic Process Imaging**

P Brzeski, J Mirkowski, T Olszewski, A Pląskowski, W Smolik, R Szabatin

**High Resolution Rotary Electrical Capacitance Tomography System**

J Frounchi, A-R Bazzazi

**Parallel Realisation of the Linear Back-projection Algorithm for Capacitance Tomography Using TMS320C6701 Digital Signal Processors**

D F Garcia-Nocetti, J C Gamio, L A Aguilar

### SOFTWARE V: Electrical Imaging

**Keynote: Time-varying Electrical Impedance Tomography with IMM Scheme**

K Y Kim, S I Kang, B S Kim, M C Kim, S Kim

**The Mathematical Formulation of the State Evolution Equation in Electrical Process Tomography**

H K Pikkarainen

**The Combination of Principal Component Analysis with Neural Network as a Highly Efficient 3D EIT Solution**

M Stasiak, K Siwek, R Sikora, S F Filipowicz, J Sikora

**Estimating Shapes and Free Surfaces with Electrical Impedance Tomography**

O-P Tossavainen, M Vauhkonen

**Enhancement of Electrical Impedance Tomography Images for the Binary Mixture System**

M C Kim, S Kim, K Y Kim

**Statistical Inversion Approach for Optimizing Current Patterns in EIT**

J P Kaipio, A Sepp 0nen, E Somersalo, H Haario

**Adjoint Formulations in Impedance Imaging**

N Polydorides, W R B Lionheart

**Simultaneous Reconstruction of the Boundary Shape and Conductivity in 2D Electrical Impedance Tomography**

M Soleimani, R Sadleir, K Jersey-Willuhn

### APPLICATIONS V: Process Control and Imaging

**Keynote: Application of Electrical Resistance Tomography Technology to Pharmaceutical Processes**

F Ricard, C Brechtelsbauer, C Lawrence, Y Xu, A Pannier

**Characterization and Analysis of Copper Heap Leaching by X-ray Computed Tomographic Techniques**

J D Miller, C L Lin, C Roldan, C Garcia

**Quantitation of the function of a Biofilm Reactor by Magnetic Resonance Imaging**

K Nott, F Heese, M Paterson-Beedle, L Macaskie, L Hall

**Characterization of Liquid-feed Injection Phenomena In Process Engineering By Using Dual-energy X-ray Tomography**

M Strabel, K E Wirth

**Identification of Cracks in Copper Mines by Bell Functions Approximation in Electrical Impedance Tomography**

R Sikora, J Sikora, S F Filipowicz, Z Giza, M Stasiak

**Moisture Profiles Determination During Convective Drying Using X-ray Microtomography**

A Leacute;onard, S Blacher, P Marchot, J-P Pirard, M Crine

**Imaging the Flow Profile of Molten Steel Through a Submerged Pouring Nozzle**

X Ma, A J Peyton, R Binns, S R Higson

### HARDWARE VI: Development of Sensor Systems

**Keynote: Scattering Effects as Imaging Signals for (Neutron) Tomography**

W Treimer, M Strobl, A Hilger, U Feye–Treimer

**Monitoring of High Pressure Separation of Real Hydrocarbon/Water Mixtures by Single Electrode Capacitance Probes**

R B Schüller, K Olsen, M Halleraker, B Engebretsen

**Development of a Virtual Instrument System for Industrial Process Tomography**

R Deloughry, I Davenport, X Ma, P V S Ponnapalli

**Characterisation of Heterogeneous Mixtures by Using Thick-film Ultrasonic Transducers**

T Dyakowski, J Hale, A Jaworski, N White, N Harris, A Nowakowski, G Meng, S Rwifa

**Process Tomography System by Electrostatic Charge of Particles**

M Machida, B Scarlett

### SOFTWARE VI: Electrical Capacitance II

**Keynote: Near-Infrared (NIR) Tomography for Breast Cancer Imaging**

B W Pogue, K D Paulsen

**Using Functional Analysis for Understanding Complex 3D Processes**

D Sankowski, V Mosorov, K Grudzień, A Pląskowski, A Jaworski

**Electrical Impedance Tomography in the Half Space: Locating Obstacles by Electrostatic Measurements on the Boundary**

B Schappel

**Application of Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms to the Reconstruction of Electrical Permittivity Images in Capacitance Tomography**

C Ortiz-Alemán, R Martin, J C Gamio, A Nicolas

**Spline Smoothing Algorithms for Improving Capacitance Tomography Image Reconstruction**

A Grebennikov

### APPLICATIONS VI: Electrical Tomography for Imaging Industrial Processes

**Keynote: Process Compliant Electrical Impedance Instrumentation for Wide Scale Exploitation on Industrial Vessels**

B D Grieve, J L Davidson, R Mann, W R B Lionheart, T A York

**Flow Distribution and Velocity Measurement in a Radial Flow Fixed Bed Reactor Using Electrical Resistance Tomography**

G T Bolton, C W Hooper, R Mann, E H Stitt

**Flow Uniformity in a Model Digester Measured with Electrical Resistance Tomography**

D S Vlaev, C P J Bennington

**Development of an Eddy Current System for Monitoring Taphole Operations**

J A Coveney, A J Peyton, A K Kyllo, M H Pham, N B Gray

**On Reconciling Tomographic Measurements with a Fluid Mixing Model for Semi-Batch Operation of a Stirred Vessel**

S J Stanley, H V Hristov, R Mann, K Primrose

**Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography to Investigate Gas Solid Contacting**

R B White